Premiul Nobel pentru Literatură

Premiul Nobel pentru Literatură

Rezumat

Premiul Nobel pentru Literatură este un premiu literar care se acordă anual de către Academia Suedeză persoanei care a creat ,,în domeniul literaturii cea mai valoroasă operă într-o direcție ideală” (Alfred Nobel[1]). Este unul din cele 5 premii Nobel acordate conform testamentului lui Alfred Nobel.

Data

Decernarea Premiului Nobel pentru Literatură are loc la începutul lui octombrie.

Valoare financiară

Premiul Nobel pentru Literatură are o valoare variabilă. În 2018 premiul a fost de 9 milioane de coroane, adică circa 944 000 dolari.[2]

Laureat/laureați

Premiul poate reveni unei singure persoane, sau se poate împărți la 2 persoane în mod egal, sau se poate împărți la trei persoane, fie în mod egal, fie într-un mod în care o persoană primește jumătate, iar celelalte două persoane câte un sfert fiecare.[3]

Bărbați și femei

S-au acordat 112 premii Nobel în perioada 1901-2019, unui număr de 116 persoane, 101 bărbați și 15 femei.

Femei:

1909 – Selma Lagerlöf

1926 – Grazia Deledda

Scriitoare norvegiană
Sigrid Undset. Autor: necunoscut. Licenţă: Domeniul Public.

1928 – Sigrid Undset

1938 – Pearl Buck

1945 – Gabriela Mistral

1966 – Nelly Sachs

1991 – Nadine Gordimer

1993 – Toni Morrison

1996 – Wislawa Szymborska

2004 – Elfriede Jelinek

2007 – Doris Lessing

2009 – Herta Müller

2013 – Alice Munro

2015 – Svetlana Alexievich

2018 – Olga Tokarczuk [4]

Premiu împărțit

Premiul a fost împărțit de 2 persoane de 4 ori (1904, 1917, 1966, 1974).

1904 – Frédéric Mistral, José Echegaray
1917 – Karl Gjellerup, Henrik Pontoppidan
1966 – Shmuel Agnon, Nelly Sachs
1974 – Eyvind Johnson, Harry Martinson[5]

Multiplu laureat

Până acum nu a existat vreo persoană care să fi primit premiul de mai multe ori.[6]

Neacordare

Premiul Nobel pentru Literatură nu a fost acordat de 7 ori, în anii 1914, 1918, 1935, 1940, 1941, 1942 și 1943.[7]

Vârstă

Cel mai tânăr laureat al Premiului Nobel pentru Literatură a fost Rudyard Kipling, care avea 41 ani și cel mai vârstnic a fost Doris Lessing, care avea 88 ani.[8]

Post-mortem

Erik Axel Karlfeldt a primit premiul Nobel pentru Literatură post-mortem, în 1931. Din 1974 s-a stabilit că nu poate fi acordat premiul post-mortem, cu excepția situației în care decesul survine după anunțul câștigării premiului.[9]

Refuz

Au fost 2 persoane care au refuzat premiul: Boris Pasternak (1958) și Jean Paul Sartre (1964). Boris Pasternak a acceptat întâi premiul, dar a fost forțat apoi de autoritățile comuniste să-l refuze.[10]

Lista laureaților

An       Nume  Țară     Limbă (limbi)

1901    Sully Prudhomme       Franţa Franța   Franceză

1902    Theodor Mommsen     Germania Germania    Germană

1903    Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson Norvegia Norvegia      Norvegiană

1904    Frédéric Mistral           Franţa Franța   Occitană

José Echegaray y Eizaguirre   Spania Spania  Spaniolă

1905    Henryk Sienkiewicz    Polonia Polonia           Poloneză

1906    Giosuè Carducci         Italia Italia       Italiană

1907    Rudyard Kipling         Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Engleză

1908    Rudolf Christoph Eucken       Germania Germania    Germană

1909    Selma Lagerlöf            Suedia Suedia Suedeză

1910    Paul Heyse      Germania Germania    Germană

1911    Maurice Maeterlinck   Belgia Belgia   Franceză

1912    Gerhart Hauptmann    Germania Germania    Germană

1913    Rabindranath Tagore  India India      Bengaleză

1915    Romain Rolland          Franţa Franța   Franceză

1916    Verner von Heidenstam          Suedia Suedia Suedeză

1917    Karl Adolph Gjellerup            Danemarca Danemarca           Daneză

Henrik Pontoppidan    Danemarca Danemarca           Daneză

1919    Carl Spitteler   Elveţia Elveția Germană

1920    Knut Hamsun  Norvegia Norvegia      Norvegiană

1921    Anatole France            Franţa Franța   Franceză

1922    Jacinto Benavente       Spania Spania  Spaniolă

1923    William Butler Yeats  Irlanda Irlanda            Engleză

1924    Władysław Reymont  Polonia Polonia           Poloneză

1925    George Bernard Shaw Irlanda Irlanda            Engleză

1926    Grazia Deledda           Italia Italia       Italiană

1927    Henri Bergson Franţa Franța   Franceză

scriitoare norvegiană
Sigrid Undset. Autor: necunoscut. Licenţă: Domeniul Public.

1928    Sigrid Undset  Norvegia Norvegia      Norvegiană

1929    Thomas Mann Germania Germania    Germană

1930    Sinclair Lewis Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii Engleză

1931    Erik Axel Karlfeldt     Suedia Suedia Suedeză

1932    John Galsworthy         Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Engleză

1933    Ivan Alexeevici Bunin            Rusia Rusia (în exil)    Rusă

1934    Luigi Pirandello          Italia Italia       Italiană

1936    Eugene O’Neill            Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii Engleză

1937    Roger Martin du Gard              Franţa Franța Franceză

1938    Pearl S. Buck  Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii Engleză

1939    Frans Eemil Sillanpää  Finlanda Finlanda       Finlandeză

1944    Johannes Vilhelm Jensen        Danemarca Danemarca           Daneză

1945    Gabriela Mistral          Chile Chile      Spaniolă

1946    Hermann Hesse           Elveţia Elveția Germană

1947    André Gide     Franţa Franța   Franceză

1948    T. S. Eliot        Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii/Regatul Unit Regatul Unit            Engleză

1949    William Faulkner         Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii Engleză

1950    Bertrand Russell         Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Engleză

1951    Pär Lagerkvist Suedia Suedia Suedeză

1952    François Mauriac         Franţa Franța   Franceză

1953    Sir Winston Churchill Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Engleză

1954    Ernest Hemingway     Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii Engleză

1955    Halldór Laxness          Islanda Islanda            Islandeză

1956    Juan Ramón Jiménez   Spania Spania  Spaniolă

1957    Albert Camus  Franţa Franța   Franceză

1958    Boris Leonidovici Pasternak (a refuzat premiul)        Rusia Rusia     Rusă

1959    Salvatore Quasimodo  Italia Italia       Italiană

1960    Saint-John Perse          Franţa Franța   Franceză

1961    Ivo Andric      Iugoslavia Iugoslavia  Sârbo-croată

1962    John Steinbeck            Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii Engleză

1963    Giorgos Seferis           Grecia Grecia  Greacă

1964    Jean-Paul Sartre (a refuzat premiul)    Franţa Franța   Franceză

1965    Mihail Șolohov            Rusia Rusia     Rusă

1966    Șemuel Iosef Agnon   Israel Israel      Ebraică

Nelly Sachs     Germania Germania    Germană

1967    Miguel Ángel Asturias            Guatemala Guatemala Spaniolă

1968    Yasunari Kawabata     Japonia Japonia           Japoneză

1969    Samuel Beckett           Irlanda Irlanda            Engleză/Franceză

1970    Alexandr Soljenițîn     Rusia Rusia     Rusă

1971    Pablo Neruda  Chile Chile      Spaniolă

1972    Heinrich Böll   Germania Germania (Vest)     Germană

1973    Patrick White  Australia Australia      Engleză

1974    Eyvind Johnson          Suedia Suedia Suedeză

Harry Martinson          Suedia Suedia Suedeză

1975    Eugenio Montale         Italia Italia       Italiană

1976    Saul Bellow     Canada Canada/Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii          Engleză

1977    Vicente Aleixandre     Spania Spania  Spaniolă

1978    Isaac Bashevis Singer născut în Polonia, Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii      Idiș

1979    Odysseas Elytis           Grecia Grecia  Greacă

1980    Czesław Miłosz           Polonia Polonia/Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii            Poloneză

1981    Elias Canetti    Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Germană

1982    Gabriel García Márquez          Columbia Columbia    Spaniolă

1983    William Golding         Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Engleză

1984    Jaroslav Seifert            Cehoslovacia Cehoslovacia     Cehă

1985    Claude Simon Franţa Franța   Franceză

1986    Akinwande Oluwole Soyinka Nigeria Nigeria            Engleză

1987    Iosif Brodski   Rusia Rusia/Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii     Rusă/Engleză

1988    Naguib Mahfouz         Egipt Egipt      Arabă

1989    Camilo José Cela         Spania Spania  Spaniolă

1990    Octavio Paz     Mexic Mexic   Spaniolă

1991    Nadine Gordimer        Africa de Sud Africa de Sud  Engleză

1992    Derek Walcott Sfânta Lucia Sfânta Lucia      Engleză

1993    Toni Morrison Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii Engleză

1994    Kenzaburo Oe Japonia Japonia           Japoneză

1995    Seamus Heaney           Irlanda Irlanda            Engleză

1996    Wisława Szymborska  Polonia Polonia           Poloneză

1997    Dario Fo          Italia Italia       Italiană

1998    José Saramago Portugalia Portugalia  Portugheză

1999    Günter Grass   Germania Germania    Germană

2000    Gao Xingjian   Franţa Franța/China China      Chineză

2001    Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul           Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Engleză

2002    Imre Kertész   Ungaria Ungaria          Maghiară

2003    John Maxwell Coetzee            Africa de Sud Africa de Sud  Engleză

2004    Elfriede Jelinek           Austria Austria            Germană

2005    Harold Pinter  Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Engleză

2006    Orhan Pamuk  Turcia Turcia   Turcă

2007    Doris Lessing  Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Engleză

2008    Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio            Franţa Franța și Mauritius Mauritius   Franceză

2009    Herta Müller    Germania Germania și  România        Germană/Română

2010    Mario Vargas Llosa     Peru Peru / Spania Spania       Spaniolă

2011    Tomas Tranströmer     Suedia Suedia Suedeză

2012    Mo Yan           China China  Chineză

2013    Alice Munro    Canada Canada           Engleză

2014    Patrick Modiano         Franţa Franța   Franceză

2015    Svetlana Alexievici     Belarus Belarus           Rusă

2016    Bob Dylan       Statele Unite ale Americii Statele Unite ale Americii Engleză

2017    Kazuo Ishiguro           Regatul Unit Regatul Unit      Engleză

2018    Olga Tokarczuk (decernat în 2019)    Polonia Polonia           Poloneză

2019    Peter Handke  Austria Austria            Germană

Ierarhizarea după țară

1.Franța 15 laureați (14 nativi): Sully Prudhomme, Frédéric Mistral, Romain Rolland, Anatole France, Henri Bergson, Roger Martin du Gard, André Gide, François Mauriac, Albert Camus, Saint-John Perse, Jean-Paul Sartre, Claude Simon, Gao Xingjian (Franța, născut în China), Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio (Franța și Mauritius), Patrick Modiano.

2.Statele Unite 13 laureați (9 nativi): Sinclair Lewis, Eugene O’Neill, Pearl S. Buck, T. S. Eliot (născut în Statele Unite ale Americii /Regatul Unit), William Faulkner, Ernest Hemingway, John Steinbeck, Saul Bellow (Canada/ Statele Unite ale Americii), Isaac Bashevis Singer (născut în Polonia), Czesław Miłosz (Polonia/Statele Unite ale Americii), Iosif Brodski (Rusia/Statele Unite ale Americii), Toni Morrison, Bob Dylan.

3.Regatul Unit al Marii Britanii 11 laureați (8 nativi): Rudyard Kipling, John Galsworthy, T. S. Eliot(Statele Unite ale Americii/Regatul Unit), Bertrand Russell, Sir Winston Churchill, Elias Canetti (Regatul Unit; născut în Bulgaria), William Golding, Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul (născut în Trinidad și Tobago, care era atunci teritoriu britanic), Harold Pinter, Doris Lessing, Kazuo Ishiguro (născut în Japonia)

4.Germania 9 laureați (8 nativi) Theodor Mommsen, Rudolf Christoph Eucken, Paul Heyse, Gerhart Hauptmann, Thomas Mann, Nelly Sachs, Heinrich Böll, Günter Grass, Herta Müller (Germania și  România; născută în România; a emigrat în Germania în 1987)

5.Suedia 8 laureați: Selma Lagerlöf, Verner von Heidenstam, Erik Axel Karlfeldt, Pär Lagerkvist, Eyvind Johnson, Harry Martinson, Tomas Tranströmer

6.Italia 6 laureați: Giosuè Carducci, Grazia Deledda, Luigi Pirandello, Salvatore Quasimodo, Eugenio Montale, Dario Fo

7.Spania 6 laureați: José Echegaray y Eizaguirre, Jacinto Benavente, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Vicente Aleixandre, Camilo José Cela, Mario Vargas Llosa

8.Polonia 5 laureați: Henryk Sienkiewicz, Władysław Reymont, Czesław Miłosz (Polonia Polonia/Statele Unite ale Americii), Wisława Szymborska, Olga Tokarczuk (decernat în 2019)

9.Irlanda 4 laureați: William Butler Yeats, George Bernard Shaw, Samuel Beckett, Seamus Heaney

10.Rusia 4 laureați: Ivan Alexeevici Bunin, Boris Leonidovici Pasternak, Mihail Șolohov, Alexandr Soljenițîn

Danemarca      3 : Karl Adolph Gjellerup, Henrik Pontoppidan, Johannes Vilhelm Jensen

Norway           3 : Bjørnstjerne Bjørnson, Knut Hamsun, Sigrid Undset

Chile    2: Gabriela Mistral, Pablo Neruda

China   2 : Gao Xingjian Franţa/China, Mo Yan

Grecia  2 : Giorgos Seferis, Odysseas Elytis

Japonia            2: Yasunari Kawabata, Kenzaburo Oe

Africa de Sud 2 Nadine Gordimer, John Maxwell Coetzee

Elveția             2 Carl Spitteler, Hermann Hesse

Austria             2 Elfriede Jelinek, Peter Handke

Canada                       2 Saul Bellow (Canada/Statele Unite ale Americii), Alice Munro

Australia          1 Patrick White

Belarus            1 Svetlana Alexievici

Belgia              1 Maurice Maeterlinck

Bulgaria           1 Elias Canetti (Regatul Unit; născut în Bulgaria)

Columbia         1 Gabriel García Márquez

Cehoslovacia   1 Jaroslav Seifert

Egipt   1 Naguib Mahfouz

Finlanda          1 Frans Eemil Sillanpää

Guatemala       1 Miguel Ángel Asturias

Ungaria           1 Imre Kertész

Islanda   1 Halldór Laxness

India    1 Rabindranath Tagore

Israel   1 Șemuel Iosef Agnon

Mauritius         1 Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio         (Franța și Mauritius)

Mexic  1 Octavio Paz

Nigeria            1 Akinwande Oluwole Soyinka

Peru     1 Mario Vargas Llosa

Portugalia        1 José Saramago

Sfânta Lucia    1 Derek Walcott

Turcia  1 Orhan Pamuk

Iugoslavia        1 Ivo Andric

România 1 Herta Müller (Germania și  România; născută în România; a emigrat în Germania în 1987)

Lista detaliată a laureaților

Lista detaliată a laureaților (1901-2019), cu mențiunea contribuției:

2019

Peter Handke “for an influential work that with linguistic ingenuity has explored the periphery and the specificity of human experience”

 

2018

Olga Tokarczuk “for a narrative imagination that with encyclopedic passion represents the crossing of boundaries as a form of life”

 

2017

Kazuo Ishiguro “who, in novels of great emotional force, has uncovered the abyss beneath our illusory sense of connection with the world”

 

2016

Bob Dylan “for having created new poetic expressions within the great American song tradition”

 

2015

Svetlana Alexievich “for her polyphonic writings, a monument to suffering and courage in our time”

 

2014

Patrick Modiano “for the art of memory with which he has evoked the most ungraspable human destinies and uncovered the life-world of the occupation”

 

2013

Alice Munro “master of the contemporary short story”

 

2012

Mo Yan “who with hallucinatory realism merges folk tales, history and the contemporary”

 

2011

Tomas Tranströmer “because, through his condensed, translucent images, he gives us fresh access to reality”

 

2010

Mario Vargas Llosa “for his cartography of structures of power and his trenchant images of the individual’s resistance, revolt, and defeat”

 

2009

Herta Müller “who, with the concentration of poetry and the frankness of prose, depicts the landscape of the dispossessed”

 

2008

Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio “author of new departures, poetic adventure and sensual ecstasy, explorer of a humanity beyond and below the reigning civilization”

 

2007

Doris Lessing “that epicist of the female experience, who with scepticism, fire and visionary power has subjected a divided civilisation to scrutiny”

 

2006

Orhan Pamuk “who in the quest for the melancholic soul of his native city has discovered new symbols for the clash and interlacing of cultures”

 

2005

Harold Pinter“who in his plays uncovers the precipice under everyday prattle and forces entry into oppression’s closed rooms”

 

2004

Elfriede Jelinek “for her musical flow of voices and counter-voices in novels and plays that with extraordinary linguistic zeal reveal the absurdity of society’s clichés and their subjugating power”

 

2003

John M. Coetzee “who in innumerable guises portrays the surprising involvement of the outsider”

 

2002

Imre Kertész “for writing that upholds the fragile experience of the individual against the barbaric arbitrariness of history”

 

2001

Sir Vidiadhar Surajprasad Naipaul “for having united perceptive narrative and incorruptible scrutiny in works that compel us to see the presence of suppressed histories”

 

2000

Gao Xingjian “for an æuvre of universal validity, bitter insights and linguistic ingenuity, which has opened new paths for the Chinese novel and drama”

 

1999

Günter Grass “whose frolicsome black fables portray the forgotten face of history”

 

1998

José Saramago who with parables sustained by imagination, compassion and irony continually enables us once again to apprehend an elusory reality”

 

1997

Dario Fo “who emulates the jesters of the Middle Ages in scourging authority and upholding the dignity of the downtrodden”

 

1996

Wislawa Szymborska “for poetry that with ironic precision allows the historical and biological context to come to light in fragments of human reality”

 

1995

Seamus Heaney “for works of lyrical beauty and ethical depth, which exalt everyday miracles and the living past”

 

1994

Kenzaburo Oe “who with poetic force creates an imagined world, where life and myth condense to form a disconcerting picture of the human predicament today”

 

1993

Toni Morrison “who in novels characterized by visionary force and poetic import, gives life to an essential aspect of American reality”

 

1992

Derek Walcott “for a poetic oeuvre of great luminosity, sustained by a historical vision, the outcome of a multicultural commitment”

 

1991

Nadine Gordimer “who through her magnificent epic writing has – in the words of Alfred Nobel – been of very great benefit to humanity”

 

1990

Octavio Paz “for impassioned writing with wide horizons, characterized by sensuous intelligence and humanistic integrity”

 

1989

Camilo José Cela “for a rich and intensive prose, which with restrained compassion forms a challenging vision of man’s vulnerability”

 

1988

Naguib Mahfouz “who, through works rich in nuance – now clear-sightedly realistic, now evocatively ambiguous – has formed an Arabian narrative art that applies to all mankind”

 

1987

Joseph Brodsky “for an all-embracing authorship, imbued with clarity of thought and poetic intensity”

 

1986

Wole Soyinka “who in a wide cultural perspective and with poetic overtones fashions the drama of existence”

 

1985

Claude Simon “who in his novel combines the poet’s and the painter’s creativeness with a deepened awareness of time in the depiction of the human condition”

 

1984

Jaroslav Seifert “for his poetry which endowed with freshness, sensuality and rich inventiveness provides a liberating image of the indomitable spirit and versatility of man”

 

1983

William Golding “for his novels which, with the perspicuity of realistic narrative art and the diversity and universality of myth, illuminate the human condition in the world of today”

 

1982

Gabriel García Márquez “for his novels and short stories, in which the fantastic and the realistic are combined in a richly composed world of imagination, reflecting a continent’s life and conflicts”

 

1981

Elias Canetti “for writings marked by a broad outlook, a wealth of ideas and artistic power”

 

1980

Czeslaw Milosz who with uncompromising clear-sightedness voices man’s exposed condition in a world of severe conflicts”

 

1979

Odysseus Elytis “for his poetry, which, against the background of Greek tradition, depicts with sensuous strength and intellectual clear-sightedness modern man’s struggle for freedom and creativeness”

 

1978

Isaac Bashevis Singer “for his impassioned narrative art which, with roots in a Polish-Jewish cultural tradition, brings universal human conditions to life”

 

1977

Vicente Aleixandre “for a creative poetic writing which illuminates man’s condition in the cosmos and in present-day society, at the same time representing the great renewal of the traditions of Spanish poetry between the wars”

 

1976

Saul Bellow “for the human understanding and subtle analysis of contemporary culture that are combined in his work”

 

1975

Eugenio Montale “for his distinctive poetry which, with great artistic sensitivity, has interpreted human values under the sign of an outlook on life with no illusions”

 

1974

Eyvind Johnson “for a narrative art, far-seeing in lands and ages, in the service of freedom”

 

Harry Martinson “for writings that catch the dewdrop and reflect the cosmos”

 

1973

Patrick White “for an epic and psychological narrative art which has introduced a new continent into literature”

 

1972

Heinrich Böll “for his writing which through its combination of a broad perspective on his time and a sensitive skill in characterization has contributed to a renewal of German literature”

 

1971

Pablo Neruda “for a poetry that with the action of an elemental force brings alive a continent’s destiny and dreams”

 

1970

Aleksandr Isayevich Solzhenitsyn “for the ethical force with which he has pursued the indispensable traditions of Russian literature”

 

1969

Samuel Beckett “for his writing, which – in new forms for the novel and drama – in the destitution of modern man acquires its elevation”

 

1968

Yasunari Kawabata “for his narrative mastery, which with great sensibility expresses the essence of the Japanese mind”

 

1967

Miguel Angel Asturias “for his vivid literary achievement, deep-rooted in the national traits and traditions of Indian peoples of Latin America”

 

1966

Shmuel Yosef Agnon “for his profoundly characteristic narrative art with motifs from the life of the Jewish people”

 

Nelly Sachs“for her outstanding lyrical and dramatic writing, which interprets Israel’s destiny with touching strength”

 

1965

Mikhail Aleksandrovich Sholokhov “for the artistic power and integrity with which, in his epic of the Don, he has given expression to a historic phase in the life of the Russian people”

 

1964

Jean-Paul Sartre “for his work which, rich in ideas and filled with the spirit of freedom and the quest for truth, has exerted a far-reaching influence on our age”

 

1963

Giorgos Seferis “for his eminent lyrical writing, inspired by a deep feeling for the Hellenic world of culture”

 

1962

John Steinbeck “for his realistic and imaginative writings, combining as they do sympathetic humour and keen social perception”

 

1961

Ivo Andric “for the epic force with which he has traced themes and depicted human destinies drawn from the history of his country”

 

1960

Saint-John Perse “for the soaring flight and the evocative imagery of his poetry which in a visionary fashion reflects the conditions of our time”

 

1959

Salvatore Quasimodo “for his lyrical poetry, which with classical fire expresses the tragic experience of life in our own times”

 

1958

Boris Leonidovich Pasternak “for his important achievement both in contemporary lyrical poetry and in the field of the great Russian epic tradition”

 

1957

Albert Camus “for his important literary production, which with clear-sighted earnestness illuminates the problems of the human conscience in our times”

 

1956

Juan Ramón Jiménez “for his lyrical poetry, which in Spanish language constitutes an example of high spirit and artistical purity”

 

1955

Halldór Kiljan Laxness “for his vivid epic power which has renewed the great narrative art of Iceland”

 

1954

Ernest Miller Hemingway “for his mastery of the art of narrative, most recently demonstrated in The Old Man and the Sea, and for the influence that he has exerted on contemporary style”

 

1953

Sir Winston Leonard Spencer Churchill “for his mastery of historical and biographical description as well as for brilliant oratory in defending exalted human values”

 

1952

François Mauriac “for the deep spiritual insight and the artistic intensity with which he has in his novels penetrated the drama of human life”

 

1951

Pär Fabian Lagerkvist “for the artistic vigour and true independence of mind with which he endeavours in his poetry to find answers to the eternal questions confronting mankind”

 

1950

Earl (Bertrand Arthur William) Russell “in recognition of his varied and significant writings in which he champions humanitarian ideals and freedom of thought”

 

1949

William Faulkner “for his powerful and artistically unique contribution to the modern American novel”

 

1948

Thomas Stearns Eliot “for his outstanding, pioneer contribution to present-day poetry”

 

1947

André Paul Guillaume Gide “for his comprehensive and artistically significant writings, in which human problems and conditions have been presented with a fearless love of truth and keen psychological insight”

 

1946

Hermann Hesse “for his inspired writings which, while growing in boldness and penetration, exemplify the classical humanitarian ideals and high qualities of style”

 

1945

Gabriela Mistral “for her lyric poetry which, inspired by powerful emotions, has made her name a symbol of the idealistic aspirations of the entire Latin American world”

 

1944

Johannes Vilhelm Jensen “for the rare strength and fertility of his poetic imagination with which is combined an intellectual curiosity of wide scope and a bold, freshly creative style”

 

1943

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

1939

Frans Eemil Sillanpää “for his deep understanding of his country’s peasantry and the exquisite art with which he has portrayed their way of life and their relationship with Nature”

 

1938

Pearl Buck “for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces”

 

1937

Roger Martin du Gard “for the artistic power and truth with which he has depicted human conflict as well as some fundamental aspects of contemporary life in his novel-cycle Les Thibault”

 

1936

Eugene Gladstone O’Neill “for the power, honesty and deep-felt emotions of his dramatic works, which embody an original concept of tragedy”

 

1935

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

1934

Luigi Pirandello “for his bold and ingenious revival of dramatic and scenic art”

 

1933

Ivan Alekseyevich Bunin “for the strict artistry with which he has carried on the classical Russian traditions in prose writing”

 

1932

John Galsworthy “for his distinguished art of narration which takes its highest form in The Forsyte Saga”

 

1931

Erik Axel Karlfeldt “The poetry of Erik Axel Karlfeldt”

 

1930

Sinclair Lewis “for his vigorous and graphic art of description and his ability to create, with wit and humour, new types of characters”

 

1929

Thomas Mann “principally for his great novel, Buddenbrooks, which has won steadily increased recognition as one of the classic works of contemporary literature”

 

1928

Sigrid Undset “principally for her powerful descriptions of Northern life during the Middle Ages”

 

1927

Henri Bergson “in recognition of his rich and vitalizing ideas and the brilliant skill with which they have been presented”

 

1926

Grazia Deledda “for her idealistically inspired writings which with plastic clarity picture the life on her native island and with depth and sympathy deal with human problems in general”

 

1925

George Bernard Shaw “for his work which is marked by both idealism and humanity, its stimulating satire often being infused with a singular poetic beauty”

 

1924

Wladyslaw Stanislaw Reymont “for his great national epic, The Peasants”

 

1923

William Butler Yeats “for his always inspired poetry, which in a highly artistic form gives expression to the spirit of a whole nation”

 

1922

Jacinto Benavente “for the happy manner in which he has continued the illustrious traditions of the Spanish drama”

 

1921

Anatole France “in recognition of his brilliant literary achievements, characterized as they are by a nobility of style, a profound human sympathy, grace, and a true Gallic temperament”

 

1920

Knut Pedersen Hamsun “for his monumental work, Growth of the Soil”

 

1919

Carl Friedrich Georg Spitteler “in special appreciation of his epic, Olympian Spring”

 

1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

1917

Karl Adolph Gjellerup “for his varied and rich poetry, which is inspired by lofty ideals”

 

Henrik Pontoppidan “for his authentic descriptions of present-day life in Denmark”

 

1916

Carl Gustaf Verner von Heidenstam “in recognition of his significance as the leading representative of a new era in our literature”

 

1915

Romain Rolland “as a tribute to the lofty idealism of his literary production and to the sympathy and love of truth with which he has described different types of human beings”

 

1914

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

1913

Rabindranath Tagore “because of his profoundly sensitive, fresh and beautiful verse, by which, with consummate skill, he has made his poetic thought, expressed in his own English words, a part of the literature of the West”

 

1912

Gerhart Johann Robert Hauptmann “primarily in recognition of his fruitful, varied and outstanding production in the realm of dramatic art”

 

1911

Count Maurice (Mooris) Polidore Marie Bernhard Maeterlinck “in appreciation of his many-sided literary activities, and especially of his dramatic works, which are distinguished by a wealth of imagination and by a poetic fancy, which reveals, sometimes in the guise of a fairy tale, a deep inspiration, while in a mysterious way they appeal to the readers’ own feelings and stimulate their imaginations”

 

1910

Paul Johann Ludwig Heyse “as a tribute to the consummate artistry, permeated with idealism, which he has demonstrated during his long productive career as a lyric poet, dramatist, novelist and writer of world-renowned short stories”

 

1909

Selma Ottilia Lovisa Lagerlöf “in appreciation of the lofty idealism, vivid imagination and spiritual perception that characterize her writings”

 

1908

Rudolf Christoph Eucken “in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life”

 

1907

Rudyard Kipling “in consideration of the power of observation, originality of imagination, virility of ideas and remarkable talent for narration which characterize the creations of this world-famous author”

 

1906

Giosuè Carducci “not only in consideration of his deep learning and critical research, but above all as a tribute to the creative energy, freshness of style, and lyrical force which characterize his poetic masterpieces”

 

1905

Henryk Sienkiewicz “because of his outstanding merits as an epic writer”

 

1904

Frédéric Mistral “in recognition of the fresh originality and true inspiration of his poetic production, which faithfully reflects the natural scenery and native spirit of his people, and, in addition, his significant work as a Provençal philologist”

 

José Echegaray y Eizaguirre “in recognition of the numerous and brilliant compositions which, in an individual and original manner, have revived the great traditions of the Spanish drama”

 

1903

Bjørnstjerne Martinus Bjørnson “as a tribute to his noble, magnificent and versatile poetry, which has always been distinguished by both the freshness of its inspiration and the rare purity of its spirit”

 

1902

Christian Matthias Theodor Mommsen “the greatest living master of the art of historical writing, with special reference to his monumental work, A history of Rome”

 

1901

Sully Prudhomme “in special recognition of his poetic composition, which gives evidence of lofty idealism, artistic perfection and a rare combination of the qualities of both heart and intellect”

 

Bibliografie

https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/facts/facts-on-the-nobel-prize-in-literature

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Nobel-Prize/Literature

Dicționar enciclopedic, 1993-2009, https://dexonline.ro/definitie/Nobel

 

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Note subsol:

  • 1. Chimist, inventator și industriaș suedez, inventatorul dinamitei, Dicționar enciclopedic, 1993-2009, https://dexonline.ro/definitie/Nobel
  • 2. https://www.nobelprize.org/uploads/2019/04/prize-amounts-2019.pdf
  • 3. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Nobel-Prize
  • 4. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/facts/facts-on-the-nobel-prize-in-literature
  • 5. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/facts/facts-on-the-nobel-prize-in-literature
  • 6. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/facts/facts-on-the-nobel-prize-in-literature
  • 7. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/facts/facts-on-the-nobel-prize-in-literature
  • 8. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/facts/facts-on-the-nobel-prize-in-literature
  • 9. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/facts/facts-on-the-nobel-prize-in-literature
  • 10. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/facts/facts-on-the-nobel-prize-in-literature

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