Premiul Nobel pentru Pace

Premiul Nobel pentru Pace

Rezumat

Premiul Nobel pentru Pace este unul din cele 5 premii (alături de cele pentru fizică, chimie, fiziologie sau medicină și literatură) instituite de Alfred Nobel. Este acordat de Parlamentul Norvegian.

Număr

Premiul Nobel pentru Pace a fost acordat de 100 ori.[1]

Persoane și organizații

Au existat 134 laureați ai Premiului Nobel pentru Pace, 107 persoane și 27 organizații. Au existat 24 organizații diferite care au primit premiul. Comitetul Internațional al Crucii Roșii a primit premiul de 3 ori (1917, 1944 și 1963) și Înaltul Comisariat al Națiunilor Unite pentru Refugiați a primit premiul de 2 ori (1954 și 1981).[2]

Locul

Este singurul premiu Nobel care se decernează în Norvegia, la Oslo.

Laureați

Laureați:[3]

1901    Dunant, Henri Switzerland

Passy, Frédéric            France

1902    Ducommun, Élie         Switzerland

Gobat, Charles-Albert Switzerland

1903    Cremer, Sir Randal     U.K.

1904    Institute of International Law (founded 1873)

1905    Suttner, Bertha, Freifrau von  Austria-Hungary

1906    Roosevelt, Theodore   U.S.

1907    Moneta, Ernesto Teodoro       Italy

Renault, Louis France

1908    Arnoldson, Klas Pontus          Sweden

Bajer, Fredrik  Denmark

1909    Beernaert, Auguste-Marie-François    Belgium

Estournelles de Constant, Paul-H.-B. d’         France

1910    International Peace Bureau     (founded 1891)

1911    Asser, Tobias Michael Carel   Netherlands

Fried, Alfred Hermann           Austria-Hungary

1912    Root, Elihu      U.S.

1913    Lafontaine, Henri-Marie         Belgium

1917    International Committee of the Red Cross     (founded 1863)

1919    Wilson, Woodrow       U.S.

1920    Bourgeois, Léon          France

1921    Branting, Karl Hjalmar           Sweden

Lange, Christian Lous Norway

1922    Nansen, Fridtjof          Norway

1925    Chamberlain, Sir Austen         U.K.

Dawes, Charles G.      U.S.

1926    Briand, Aristide          France

Stresemann, Gustav    Germany

1927    Buisson, Ferdinand-Édouard  France

Quidde, Ludwig         Germany

1929    Kellogg, Frank B.       U.S.

1930    Söderblom, Nathan     Sweden

1931    Addams, Jane U.S.

Butler, Nicholas Murray         U.S.

1933    Angell, Sir Norman     U.K.

1934    Henderson, Arthur      U.K.

1935    Ossietzky, Carl von     Germany

1936    Saavedra Lamas, Carlos          Argentina

1937    Cecil (of Chelwood), Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, 1st Viscount  U.K.

1938    Nansen International Office for Refugees     (founded 1931)

1944    International Committee of the Red Cross     (founded 1863)

1945    Hull, Cordell   U.S.

1946    Balch, Emily Greene   U.S.

Mott, John R.  U.S.

1947    American Friends Service Committee            U.S.

Friends Service Council (FSC)           U.K.

1949    Boyd-Orr of Brechin Mearns, John Boyd Orr, Baron            U.K.

1950    Bunche, Ralph U.S.

1951    Jouhaux, Léon France

1952    Schweitzer, Albert      Alsace

1953    Marshall, George C.    U.S.

1954    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Office of the      (founded 1951)

1957    Pearson, Lester B.       Canada

1958    Pire, Dominique          Belgium

1959    Noel-Baker (of the City of Derby), Philip John Noel-Baker, Baron  U.K.

1960    Luthuli, Albert John    South Africa

1961    Hammarskjöld, Dag    Sweden

1962    Pauling, Linus U.S.

1963    International Committee of the Red Cross     (founded 1863)

League of Red Cross Societies           (founded 1919)

1964    King, Martin Luther, Jr.          U.S.

1965    United Nations Children’s Fund         (founded 1946)

1968    Cassin, René   France

1969    International Labour Organisation      (founded 1919)

1970    Borlaug, Norman Ernest         U.S.

1971    Brandt, Willy  West Germany

1973    Kissinger, Henry         U.S.

Le Duc Tho (declined)            North Vietnam

1974    MacBride, Seán          Ireland

Sato Eisaku     Japan

1975    Sakharov, Andrey Dmitriyevich         U.S.S.R.

1976    Corrigan, Mairéad       Northern Ireland

Williams, Betty           Northern Ireland

1977    Amnesty International            (founded 1961)

1978    Begin, Menachem       Israel

Sadat, Anwar el-         Egypt

1979    Teresa, Mother            India

1980    Pérez Esquivel, Adolfo           Argentina

1981    United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, Office of the      (founded 1951)

1982    García Robles, Alfonso           Mexico

Myrdal, Alva   Sweden

1983    Wałęsa, Lech   Poland

1984    Tutu, Desmond           South Africa

1985    International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War  (founded 1980)

1986    Wiesel, Elie     U.S.

1987    Arias Sánchez, Oscar  Costa Rica

1988    United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

1989    Dalai Lama      Tibet

1990    Gorbachev, Mikhail    U.S.S.R.

1991    Aung San Suu Kyi      Myanmar

1992    Menchú, Rigoberta     Guatemala

1993    de Klerk, F.W.            South Africa

Mandela, Nelson         South Africa

1994    Arafat, Yasser Palestinian

Peres, Shimon Israel

Rabin, Yitzhak            Israel

1995    Pugwash Conferences (founded 1957)

Rotblat, Joseph           U.K.

1996    Belo, Carlos Filipe Ximenes   East Timor

Ramos-Horta, José      East Timor

1997    International Campaign to Ban Landmines    (founded 1992)

Williams, Jody U.S.

1998    Hume, John     Northern Ireland

Trimble, David            Northern Ireland

1999    Doctors Without Borders       (founded 1971)

2000    Kim Dae-Jung South Korea

2001    United Nations           (founded 1945)

Annan, Kofi    Ghana

2002    Carter, Jimmy  U.S.

2003    Ebadi, Shirin   Iran

2004    Maathai, Wangari        Kenya

2005    ElBaradei, Mohamed  Egypt

International Atomic Energy Agency (founded 1957)

2006    Grameen Bank            (founded 1976)

Yunus, Muhammad    Bangladesh

2007    Gore, Al          U.S.

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (founded 1988)

2008    Ahtisaari, Martti          Finland

2009    Obama, Barack           U.S.

2010    Liu Xiaobo      China

2011    Gbowee, Leymah        Liberia

Johnson Sirleaf, Ellen Liberia

Karmān, Tawakkul      Yemen

2012    European Union          (founded 1993)

2013    Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons         (founded 1997)

2014    Satyarthi, Kailash        India

Yousafzai, Malala       Pakistan

2015    National Dialogue Quartet      (founded 2013)

2016    Santos, Juan Manuel   Colombia

2017    International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons           (founded 2007)

2018    Mukwege, Denis         Democratic Republic of the Congo

Murad, Nadia  Iraq

2019    Abiy Ahmed   Ethiopia

Lista detaliată

Lista detaliată a laureaților (1901-2019), cu menționarea contribuției:

 2019

Abiy Ahmed Ali “for his efforts to achieve peace and international cooperation, and in particular for his decisive initiative to resolve the border conflict with neighbouring Eritrea”

 

 2018

Denis Mukwege and Nadia Murad “for their efforts to end the use of sexual violence as a weapon of war and armed conflict”

 

 2017

International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons (ICAN) “for its work to draw attention to the catastrophic humanitarian consequences of any use of nuclear weapons and for its ground-breaking efforts to achieve a treaty-based prohibition of such weapons”

 

 2016

Juan Manuel Santos “for his resolute efforts to bring the country’s more than 50-year-long civil war to an end”

 

 2015

National Dialogue Quartet “for its decisive contribution to the building of a pluralistic democracy in Tunisia in the wake of the Jasmine Revolution of 2011”

 

 2014

Kailash Satyarthi and Malala Yousafzai “for their struggle against the suppression of children and young people and for the right of all children to education”

 

 2013

Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons (OPCW) “for its extensive efforts to eliminate chemical weapons”

 

 2012

European Union (EU) “for over six decades contributed to the advancement of peace and reconciliation, democracy and human rights in Europe”

 

 2011

Ellen Johnson Sirleaf, Leymah Gbowee and Tawakkol Karman “for their non-violent struggle for the safety of women and for women’s rights to full participation in peace-building work”

 

 2010

Liu Xiaobo “for his long and non-violent struggle for fundamental human rights in China”

 

 2009

Barack H. Obama “for his extraordinary efforts to strengthen international diplomacy and cooperation between peoples”

 

 2008

Martti Ahtisaari “for his important efforts, on several continents and over more than three decades, to resolve international conflicts”

 

 2007

Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and Albert Arnold (Al) Gore Jr. “for their efforts to build up and disseminate greater knowledge about man-made climate change, and to lay the foundations for the measures that are needed to counteract such change”

 

 2006

Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank “for their efforts to create economic and social development from below”

 

 2005

International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and Mohamed ElBaradei “for their efforts to prevent nuclear energy from being used for military purposes and to ensure that nuclear energy for peaceful purposes is used in the safest possible way”

 

 2004

Wangari Muta Maathai “for her contribution to sustainable development, democracy and peace”

 

 2003

Shirin Ebadi “for her efforts for democracy and human rights. She has focused especially on the struggle for the rights of women and children”

 

 2002

Jimmy Carter “for his decades of untiring effort to find peaceful solutions to international conflicts, to advance democracy and human rights, and to promote economic and social development”

 

 2001

United Nations (U.N.) and Kofi Annan “for their work for a better organized and more peaceful world”

 

 2000

Kim Dae-jung “for his work for democracy and human rights in South Korea and in East Asia in general, and for peace and reconciliation with North Korea in particular”

 

 1999

Médecins Sans Frontières “in recognition of the organization’s pioneering humanitarian work on several continents”

 

 1998

John Hume and David Trimble “for their efforts to find a peaceful solution to the conflict in Northern Ireland”

 

 1997

International Campaign to Ban Landmines (ICBL) and Jody Williams “for their work for the banning and clearing of anti-personnel mines”

 

 1996

Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta “for their work towards a just and peaceful solution to the conflict in East Timor”

 

 1995

Joseph Rotblat and Pugwash Conferences on Science and World Affairs “for their efforts to diminish the part played by nuclear arms in international politics and, in the longer run, to eliminate such arms”

 

 1994

Yasser Arafat, Shimon Peres and Yitzhak Rabin “for their efforts to create peace in the Middle East”

 

 1993

Nelson Mandela and Frederik Willem de Klerk “for their work for the peaceful termination of the apartheid regime, and for laying the foundations for a new democratic South Africa”

 

 1992

Rigoberta Menchú Tum “in recognition of her work for social justice and ethno-cultural reconciliation based on respect for the rights of indigenous peoples”

 

 1991

Aung San Suu Kyi “for her non-violent struggle for democracy and human rights”

 

 1990

Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev “for his leading role in the peace process which today characterizes important parts of the international community”

 

 1989

The 14th Dalai Lama (Tenzin Gyatso)

 

 1988

United Nations Peacekeeping Forces

 

 1987

Oscar Arias Sánchez “for his work for peace in Central America, efforts which led to the accord signed in Guatemala on August 7 this year”

 

 1986

Elie Wiesel

 

 1985

International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War

 

 1984

Desmond Mpilo Tutu

 

 1983

Lech Walesa

 

 1982

Alva Myrdal and Alfonso García Robles

 

 1981

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

 

 1980

Adolfo Pérez Esquivel

 

 1979

Mother Teresa

 

 1978

Mohamed Anwar al-Sadat and Menachem Begin

 

 1977

Amnesty International

 

 1976

Betty Williams and Mairead Corrigan

 

 1975

Andrei Dmitrievich Sakharov

 

 1974

Seán MacBride and Eisaku Sato

 

 1973

Henry A. Kissinger and Le Duc Tho

 

 1972

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money for 1972 was allocated to the Main Fund.

 

 1971

Willy Brandt

 

 1970

Norman E. Borlaug

 

 1969

International Labour Organization (I.L.O.)

 

 1968

René Cassin

 

 1967

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1966

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1965

United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF)

 

 1964

Martin Luther King Jr.

 

 1963

Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross) and Ligue des Sociétés de la Croix-Rouge (League of Red Cross Societies)

 

 1962

Linus Carl Pauling

 

 1961

Dag Hjalmar Agne Carl Hammarskjöld

 

 1960

Albert John Lutuli

 

 1959

Philip J. Noel-Baker

 

 1958

Georges Pire

 

 1957

Lester Bowles Pearson

 

 1956

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1955

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1954

Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR)

 

 1953

George Catlett Marshall

 

 1952

Albert Schweitzer

 

 1951

Léon Jouhaux

 

 1950

Ralph Bunche

 

 1949

Lord (John) Boyd Orr of Brechin

 

 1948

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1947

Friends Service Council (The Quakers) and American Friends Service Committee (The Quakers)

 

 1946

Emily Greene Balch and John Raleigh Mott

 

 1945

Cordell Hull

 

 1944

Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross)

 

 1943

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1942

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1941

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1940

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1939

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was with 1/3 allocated to the Main Fund and with 2/3 to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1938

Office international Nansen pour les Réfugiés (Nansen International Office for Refugees)

 

 1937

Cecil of Chelwood, Viscount (Lord Edgar Algernon Robert Gascoyne Cecil)

 

 1936

Carlos Saavedra Lamas

 

 1935

Carl von Ossietzky

 

 1934

Arthur Henderson

 

 1933

Sir Norman Angell (Ralph Lane)

 

 1932

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1931

Jane Addams and Nicholas Murray Butler

 

 1930

Lars Olof Jonathan (Nathan) Söderblom

 

 1929

Frank Billings Kellogg

 

 1928

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1927

Ferdinand Buisson and Ludwig Quidde

 

 1926

Aristide Briand and Gustav Stresemann

 

 1925

Sir Austen Chamberlain and Charles Gates Dawes

 

 1924

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1923

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1922

Fridtjof Nansen

 

 1921

Karl Hjalmar Branting and Christian Lous Lange

 

 1920

Léon Victor Auguste Bourgeois

 

 1919

Thomas Woodrow Wilson

 

 1918

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1917

Comité international de la Croix Rouge (International Committee of the Red Cross)

 

 1916

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1915

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1914

No Nobel Prize was awarded this year. The prize money was allocated to the Special Fund of this prize section.

 

 1913

Henri La Fontaine

 

 1912

Elihu Root

 

 1911

Tobias Michael Carel Asser and Alfred Hermann Fried

 

 1910

Bureau international permanent de la Paix (Permanent International Peace Bureau)

 

 1909

Auguste Marie François Beernaert and Paul Henri Benjamin Balluet d’Estournelles de Constant, Baron de Constant de Rebecque

 

 1908

Klas Pontus Arnoldson and Fredrik Bajer

 

 1907

Ernesto Teodoro Moneta and Louis Renault

 

 1906

Theodore Roosevelt

 

 1905

Baroness Bertha Sophie Felicita von Suttner, née Countess Kinsky von Chinic und Tettau

 

 1904

Institut de droit international (Institute of International Law)

 

 1903

William Randal Cremer

 

 1902

Élie Ducommun and Charles Albert Gobat

 

 1901

Jean Henry Dunant and Frédéric Passy

 

Bibliografie

All Nobel Peace Prizes. NobelPrize.org. Nobel Media AB 2020. Wed. 5 Feb 2020. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/lists/all-nobel-peace-prizes

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica, https://www.britannica.com/topic/Nobel-Prize/Peace

Dicționar enciclopedic 1993- 2009, https://dexonline.ro/definitie/Nobel

 

Premiul Nobel pentru Pace Premiul Nobel pentru Pace Premiul Nobel pentru Pace

Please follow and like us:

Note subsol:

  • 1. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/lists/all-nobel-peace-prizes
  • 2. https://www.nobelprize.org/prizes/lists/all-nobel-peace-prizes
  • 3. https://www.britannica.com/topic/Nobel-Prize/Peace

Lasă un răspuns

Acest sit folosește Akismet pentru a reduce spamul. Află cum sunt procesate datele comentariilor tale.